last edited: Sat, 25 May 2019 11:18:58 +0200  
Read before you begin.
Dear fellow forest maker,
Thanks for taking the initiative to make a forest by yourself. It will be challenging but you will also have a lot of fun, especially in the first 2 years post plantation.

We request you to go step by step and follow each standard without deviation. It took us 6 long years to write these standard operating procedures, we abide by them in all our projects and saw them working in every geography.

The steps followed in forest making are:
Identifying Soil type and determining Soil Nourishment Material
Selection of forest trees species.
Designing the forest.
Site Readiness & Pre Afforestation Activities
Making a Bill of Material for consumables and non-consumables items.
Execution and tree planting
Maintenance & Monitoring

Sunny Verma, Executive Director. Afforestt.

DETERMINE SOIL TEXTURE
AND QUANTIFY BIOMASS
WHAT
Soil Texture is the composition of soil in relation to
Sand, Silt and Clay, with sand being the coarsest fraction and clay being the finest
WHY
The soil texture will help us determine the following properties of the soil:

Water holding capacity

Water infiltration

Root perforation capacity

Nutrient retention

Erodibility
WHO
Forest Creators
WHEN
Pre execution technical work
HOW
Reference Video:
TEST 1

Notes:
This is a simple do it yourself method. Here’s a summary of steps
:
I.
Hold the soil in your hand
.
II.
Push
it
together to break it into smaller pieces
.
III.
Anything that is more than 2 mm in size (rocks etc.) should be removed
.
IV.
Make sure you have a palm full of soil.
V.
If the soil is dry, then add a little bit of water
.
VI.
Work it between your hands to form a nice moist ball
.
VII.
Make sure that you don’t make it too wet, but you need it to come together nicely
.
VIII.
While you form the ball, if there is sand in the soil, then you can mostly see and feel the coarse sand
.
IX.
If there is fine sand in it, then you can hold the ball close to your ear and hear it grinding together when you play with the ball in your hand.
X.
If its clay, then it feels like plasticine, very sticky
. The ball holds together nicely
.
XI.
If it has silt, then it stains your hand, and it feels silky
.
XII.
After you have a rough idea of the type, then form a ribbon
.
XIII.
Determine exact soil type using ribbon test chart (explained in detail in the next video)

Reference Video:
TEST 2

(Note: loam is a mix of sand, silt and clay)
Summary of steps:
I.
Get a palm full of soil, make it wet and knead it thoroughly.
II.
Knead the soil to break down all aggregates.
III.
Try to form a ball.
IV.
If you cannot form a ball then the soil is Sandy.
V.
If you can form a ball then it is some other soil type.
VI.
Make soil ribbons and let them break under their own weight.
VII.
If you are unable to form ribbons, then the soil is Loamy Sand
VIII.
If it forms ribbon – then it is some other soil type
IX.
If the ribbon formed is <= 2.5 cm ribbon, then it some kind of Loam soil.
To determine the type of Loam soil, here’s the test:
a.
Place some soil in your palm
b.
Make it excessively wet
c.
Rub it thoroughly with your forefinger
d.
Check whether it feels ‘Gritty’ or ‘Smooth’
e.
Does it feel Smooth like flour, Gritty like Sugar or Gritty like Sand?
f.
Very Gritty–Sandy loam
g.
Very Smooth–Silt Loam
h.
Neither Gritty Nor Smooth–Loam
X.
If the ribbon formed is 2.5-5cm, then it some kind of Clay Loam soil.
To determine the type of Clay Loam
soil, here’s the test:
a.
Place some soil in your palm
b.
Make it excessively wet
c.
Rub it thoroughly with your forefinger
d.
Check whether it feels ‘Gritty’ or ‘Smooth’
e.
Does it feel Smooth like flour, Gritty like Sugar or Gritty like Sand?
f.
Very Gritty–Sandy Clay loam
g.
Very Smooth–Silt Clay Loam
h.
Neither Gritty Nor Smooth–Clay Loam

XI.
If the ribbon formed is >=5cm, then it some kind of Clay soil. To determine the type of Clay soil, here’s the test:
a.
Place some soil in your palm
b.
Make it excessively wet
c.
Rub it thoroughly with your forefinger
d.
Check whether it feels ‘Gritty’ or ‘Smooth’
e.
Does it feel Smooth like flour, Gritty like Sugar or Gritty like Sand?
f.
Very Gritty–Sandy Clay
g.
Very Smooth–Silty Clay
h.
Neither Gritty Nor Smooth–Clay

  last edited: Wed, 24 Apr 2019 15:01:54 +0200  
04 March 2019
Authors: UN Environment

Will the cutting edge of genetic splicing techniques lead to a huge boon for human and environmental health, provided regulation can successfully control the risk of unintended ecological consequences? Will we act in time to prevent the further degradation of climate-critical permafrost peatlands and avert reaching the threshold of a potential runaway global greenhouse effect? Can we avoid the pitfalls of maladaptation to overarching climate change and move forward with wisdom to mitigate the worst effects – for all, not the few?

The UN Environment Frontiers series links new science to outcome-oriented policies in relation to the health of the environment and its sustainability. The 2018/19 edition continues the tradition of highly referenced texts accompanied by illustrative infographics and featuring the interactivity of links to videos on related research and information.

Frontiers 2018/19 was launched on 4 March 2019 prior to the fourth UN Environment Assembly in Nairobi, Kenya. The report covers five key emerging issues: the latest developments in synthetic biology; the critical advantages of landscape connectivity; the complex interactions and vulnerability of permafrost peatlands; the challenges of widespread nitrogen pollution; and the hazards of maladaptation in a world of climate change. Read on for an outline of each topic.

Synthetic biology: Re-engineering the environment

The ability to successfully alter organisms at the genetic level has excited scientists and the general public alike. Gene-editing techniques are advancing rapidly, bringing the promise of many biological and ecological benefits, from eradicating human diseases to preventing species extinction. CRISPR-Cas9 is the latest, quickest tool in the genetic editing tool box, allowing extraordinary precision in the manipulation of genomes.

However, this ability to create synthetic life and alter existing DNA carries with it the risk of cross contamination and unintended consequences. Hacking the code of life has such major implications that there is an urgent need for governing bodies to collaborate and cooperate in ensuring safe research and development in this field. The rise of the DIY biohacker and the risk of the accidental release of genetically modified organisms into the environment is a cause for regulatory concern. Many of the benefits and challenges of synthetic biology are explored in this fascinating chapter.

Ecological connectivity: A bridge to preserving biodiversity

Large-scale industrialization has resulted in widespread fragmentation of previously intact landscapes around the globe. From the clearance of richly populated rainforests to the damming of mighty, arterial rivers, the knock-on effect of isolated, impacted ecosystems is detrimental to the health of flora and fauna alike, and in severe cases, threatens species extinction. Landscapes are also not limited to the terrestrial realm as ecosystem connectivity extends beyond continental shores into marine seascapes and the oceans.

Initiatives to promote landscape connectivity are offering hope in various global locations, but much more focus in planning to reconnect habitat patches or preserve existing connectivity is needed. This is vital to preserving the remaining biodiversity and to protect the interlinked ecosystems on which we all depend. National efforts require expansion to the international level, as ecosystems are not bounded by country borders. From marine reserves to wildlife corridors and beyond, this wide-ranging chapter explores the issues of, and solutions to, fragmentation in the natural world and the imperative for joined-up thinking in planning for the preservation and conservation of biodiversity and species survival.

Permafrost peatlands: Losing ground in a warming world

With rising global temperatures, the Arctic is warming twice as fast as the global average and scientists are becoming increasingly alarmed at the accelerating rate of permafrost thaw. While research is ongoing, too little is currently known of the intricate relationships and dynamics between the perennially frozen ground that is permafrost and the insulating layer of dead plant remains – or peat – that covers a significant percentage of the Northernmost areas of our planet.

Permafrost thaw not only has direct impacts on the ecology and infrastructure of the peatland regions, it is also a potential ‘tipping element’ towards a runaway greenhouse effect. Preservation of these rich soil-carbon deposits is imperative to cushion the global effects of climate change and to avoid the worst effects and risks of unlocking these frozen assets, which keep carbon and other greenhouse gases sequestered underground and out of the atmosphere. Likely scenarios and the collaborative research urgently needed to ensure preservation of these crucial deposits are thoroughly explored in this chapter, from the ground up.

The nitrogen fix: From nitrogen cycle pollution to nitrogen circular economy


Nitrogen is one of the most abundant natural elements and largely benign in its unreactive forms. However, too much of a good thing can be detrimental, and excess nitrogen pollution has grave impacts on ecosystems and humans alike. In the form of nitrous oxide, it is 300 times more powerful than carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas, in addition to the effects of various nitrogen compounds on air quality, ground and water, and the ozone layer.

A cohesive global approach to nitrogen management is needed in order to transform the nitrogen cycle into a sustainable, non-polluting, profitable circular economy. Although there has been some progress at the national level, a truly holistic approach to implementing effective nitrogen management strategies will require international cooperation. This highly informative chapter explores the detail and chemistry of the nitrogen pollution issue and potential routes to fixing it. If successful, the transition to a circular economy for nitrogen could be a trailblazer in wise scientific and policy decisions towards achieving the goal of a pollution-free planet.

Maladaptation to climate change: Avoiding pitfalls on the evolvability pathway

Broadly speaking, evolution depends on successful adaptation, and maladaptation results in failure. In terms of climate change, strategies for adaptation need to address vulnerabilities and increase resilience on a global scale, and avoid short-term fixes that may only have local benefits. It is becoming clear that international cooperation and planning are needed to avoid adaptations that may appear to offer mitigation, but which actually compound the problem.

This intriguing chapter explores the distinction between true adaptation, maladaptation and sham adaptation. It delves into the crucial discussions in international fora and case studies of what constitutes maladaptation in relation to the imperative to keep the post-industrial global average temperature increase below 1.5°C. This relatively new area of focus for policymakers will exercise the human attribute of foresight in order to attain the requisite ‘evolvability’. Long-term vision in designing development and adaptation policies will be required to make the right sustainable decisions for future generations.

Source:
  
Ecological Connectivity
View PDF

  
Synthetic Biology
View PDF

  
Permafrost Peatlands

  last edited: Wed, 09 Jan 2019 20:55:32 +0100  

CeiloTierra is a diasporic #collective of #solarpunks, #truth-seekers, #lightworkers and #anarcho-primitivists.

Those folks wishing to #cooperatively acquire, operate, manage and develop parcels of land across the #LasAlpujarras region of southern Spain.

Contributions are welcome and encouraged.
We accept #Faircoin @fN8EdGqVLH95jNVi7DinVaJi24R1FWXrcr (also fiat currencies too!)
View article